Pet birds have been described by some as moody: playful and loving one minute, demanding and aloof the next. Sometimes very obvious and sometimes very subtle,a birds body language can give you insight into what your bird needs and wants. Although parrots and other birds communicate through different body languages, the following behaviours are observed in most pet birds. Observing your birds eyes, vocalizations, wings, beak, and overall posture can be very telling.
Unlike humans, birds are able to control their irises, enlarging and shrinking their pupils rapidly. This display is called "flashing" or "pinning" and birds may do this when they are excited, greatly interested in something, or when they are angry, frightened, or aggressive. Eye pinning should be taken into context with the birds immediate environment and body posture to get an accurate emotional reading.
Wings are not always meant for flying; they often are used to communicate.
.Wing flapping: Wing flapping, or flying in place, is used as excercise, to get your attention, or just to dislay happiness. Birds may often simply lift their wings as a means to strech or to cool themselves
.Wing flipping: Wing flipping can mean many different things such as being angry or in pain. Flipping can also be used to fluff the feathers or to get the feathers to lay just right. Wing flipping accompanied by hunching of the shoulders and head bobbing is attention getting and often means the bird wants to be fed.
.Wing drooping: Young birds must learn how to fold and tuck in their wings and often let their wings droop before learning this. However, in older birds, wing drooping may indicate sickness. If the bird has just physically exerted herself or has recently bathed, she may droop her wings frm tiredness or to let the wings dry.
A birds body language includes how she holds her feathers.
.Ruffled feathers: Birds will ruffle their feathers during the preening process. This helps remove any dirt or feather dust, and also helps return their feathers to their normal position. Birds may also be observed fluffing their feathers as a way to reieve tension. If cold a bird may also fluff her feathers. Finally, if a birds feathers remain ruffled, it could be a sign of illness and she should be checked by a veterinarian.
.Crest position: Birds such as cockatoos and cockateils have a large expressive crest. A contented, relaxed bird will usually have the crest held back, with just the tip tilted up. If she is excited about seeing you, a new toy, food etc, she will often lift her crest. If however the crest is held very high, it indicates fear or great excitement, and should be taken as a warning. An aggressive or alarmed bird may hold the crest flat while crouching and hissing.
.Quivering: Quivering may occur when the bird is frightened, overly excited, or part of breeding behavior.
A birds tail feathers, like other pets tails are also used to communicate.
.Tail wagging: A bird, like a dog, may wag her tail to tell you that she is glad to see you. Tail wagging may also be a precursor to defecating. This is often helpful if you are trying to house train your bird.
.Tail flapping: Tail flapping is a general sign of happiness and can be seen when she is happy to see you, plays with her favorite toy, or gets a treat.
.Tail bobbing: Tail bobbing accompanied by rapid breathing that follows strenuous exercise is your birds way of catching her breath. If however , your bird is bobbing her tail feathers and and breathing hard without activity, she may be showing signs of respiratory distress or infection. If this occurs, see your veterinarian.
.Tail fanning: Fanning the tail feathers often accompanies other behaviors in a show of aggression or anger. Spreading out of the tail feathers is a show that displays the birds strength and vitality.
Legs and feet
The legs and feet are not used as often as other body parts to communicate but they are some of the most interesting of bird behaviors.
.Foot tapping: Some birds especially cockatoos, will tap their feet as a sign of dominance over their territory. This usually only happens when they feel their territory is being threatened.
.Weak legs: Some birds that do not wnt to stand or perch for themselves diplay the sudden onset of "weak legs." This most often occurs when you have been handling them and must put them back in their cage; it is their way of resisting. Simply hold and pet the bird a while longer and, when she feels she has been given adequate attention, her legs will suddenly become strong enough to perch. Some birds become very good at this behavior and make it routine.
.Hanging upside down: Some birds consider hanging upside down a natural part of their behavior. When doing this, they are happy and content with their environment.
.Scratching on the cage bottom: Birds from those species who normally forage on the ground for food, like the african grey, may scratch on the floor of the cage, much like a chicken.
In the wild, birds use various vocalizations to warn others of danger, attract mates, protect their territory, and maintain social contacts. Most birds are highly vocal and many times may be trying to communicate with you.
.Singing, talking, and whistling: These vocalizations are often signs of a happy, healthy, content bird. Some birds love an audience and sing, talk, and whistle the most when others are around. Other birds will remain quiet when others are watching.
.Chattering: Chattering can be very soft or very loud. Soft chatting can be a sign of contentment or can be the practise of a bird learning to talk. Loud chatter can be an attemp to gain attention, to remind you they are there.In the wild, birds often chatter in the evening before going to sleep to connect with flock members
.Purring: Not the same as a cats pur, a birds pur is more like a soft growl that can be a sign of content, or a sign of annoyance. When purring, the birds environment and other body language should be taken into consideration to determine what the bird is expressing.
.Tongue clicking: By clicking her tongue against her beak, your bird may be entertaining herself or asking to be picked up or petted.
.Growling: Not heard in all pet birds, growling is an aggressive vocalization. If your bird is growling, examine her environment and remove anything that may be bothering her. Growling birds should not be handled as they do not want to be touched.
BEAKS AND HEAD
The beak is used for several functions from grooming to cracking nuts and seeds. It can be used as a weapon or to build a nest. There are also many ways a bird uses her beak to tell you things.
.Grinding: Beak grinding is often a sign of contentment in birds and is heard most often as the bird falls asleep. It is characterized by the side to side sliding of one beak over the other. It is believed by some experts that birds grind their beaks to keep them in their best condition.
.Clicking: Clicking of the beak, or the back and forth sliding of one beak tip over the other, can mean several things. If she clicks once and pins her eyes but is otherwise unthreatening, she is greeting you or acknowledging something. If she clicks several times in a series, she is giving a warning and should not be handled. Beak clicking is most often seen in cockatiels and cockatoos.
.Wiping: It is common to see a bird wiping her beak after eating. Often the bird will wipe her beak on a perch, the cage floor or the cage sides to get it clean. Some birds use beak wiping as a way to mark their territory. This behaviour may be seen in birds when introduced to others or kept in areas where other birds are near.
.Biting: Birds will bite for several reasons so it is important to observe other behaviors and the birds immediate environment to determine the reason behind it. Defending territory, being fearful, or being angry can all cause birds to bite. An open beak combined with a crouching position and hissing is a definate indication that the bird is prepared to bite.
.Chewing: Most birds enjoy chewing and do it for many reasons including to condition their beaks and to entertain themselves. A variety of chew toys should be provided to keep your bird stimulated and interested and to keep her from chewing, and possibly injesting inappropriate things.
.Regurgitating: Regurgitation is the expultion of contents from from the mouth, esophagus,or crop. If your bird pins her eyes, bobs her head and streches out her neck, then regurgitates her dinner she is actually showing you a great deal of affection. Birds feed their young by regurgitating food and breeding pairs often do this for each other as a part of bonding.
.Mouthing: One way birds play is to grab each others beaks and wrestle. They will often use their beaks to joust at one another during play.
. Head shaking: It is very common for African Greys to shake their heads. The reason for this is not well understood.
.Head bobbing: Birds who want attention will often bob their heads back and forth.